|Chromodoris by David Doubilet|
Friday, October 19, 2012
Sunday, October 14, 2012
|COA students census clams at Hadley Point|
The processes of respiration, feeding, and locomotion in bivalves all rely on the animal moving water through the mantle cavity. To burrow, bivalves rely on muscle action to squeeze the shells closed, which puts pressure on the blood sinuses in the visceral mass (body) and moves blood into the foot, causing it to extend. The closing shells also squirt water anteriorly out of the mantle cavity, helping to soften the sediments in front of the burrowing clam, easing their work. Ed Yong at Not Exactly Rocket Science has a great description of the burrowing process along with photos and links to videos. The water movement for feeding and respiration is more subtle, and it relies on the action of the cilia that cover the extensive ctenidia (gills) of most bivalves. Water is swept into the mantle cavity through a larger, ventral incurrent opening at the posterior of the animal. The oxygen-rich water, laden with food particles, moves anteriorly and dorsally across the ctenidia, which both capture food and extract oxygen from the water current. The cleared water then passes back posteriorly and out through a smaller dorsal excurrent opening. You can sometimes see this process in the lab by carefully marking the water near the incurrent opening using food coloring or milk. You can also visualize water flow through mussels, using the spiffy technique of Schlieren imaging.
Friday, October 12, 2012
Having just finished my midterm check-in with the class on how the course is going, I’ve been reflecting on my teaching, particularly the lectures for invertebrate zoology. I like to think my lectures are content-rich and characterized by enthusiasm for the material and that the energy I bring serves as an invitation for students to engage more deeply with the class content. My speaking style has been influenced by many people, and I am amused to sometimes hear echoes of their voices coming through in my lectures. Sometimes channeling my inner Diver Ed is a very effective teaching tool. Vi Hart is someone else whose expertise and exuberance I greatly admire. I’ll never be able to match her speed of presentation, probably to my students’ relief. This post was really just an excuse to share these cool videos on hexaflexagons.
Monday, October 1, 2012
There are some really nice echinoderm videos out there, but this one featured at Deep Sea News is unique. The beginning of the video is dramatic enough, with an advancing front of starfish creeping up a mussel-encrusted pier piling. Notice how fluid the starfish look in the time lapse. Mutable collagenous tissue doing its thing! Then the predation begins. The starfish’s stomach should look somewhat familiar if you’ve ever interrupted a feeding starfish. But seeing it from the perspective inside a mussel shell is a thrilling novelty. Not really a “mussel’s eye view” as they have no eyes, but still! As the stomach slides in, you can see the mussel’s gills, the ctenidia, on the right. The slender, ciliated filaments that make up the gill show up as blurry striations in the foreground. On the left is the mussel’s mantle, the organ that lays down the shell. The dark orange gonad can be seen extending into the mantle tissue. It’s all just starfish food.
Friday, September 21, 2012
I always feel like the poor Ctenophora get short-shrift in Invertebrate Zoology, in the mad dash to get through 30+ phyla in a 10-week term. So for some extra ctenophore wisdom, this is an excellent summary by Claudia Mills. I knew Claudia from from my days as a UW grad student doing research at Friday HarborLabs. I have memories of her walking along the FHL dock, scooping up various jellies (hydromedusae as well as ctenophores) using a plastic beaker attached to the end of a long pole. This is the video I showed in class, in case you want to see it again. Its awesomeness is marred only by a minor misspelling of the critter's name. BEROE.
Even though I spend more time talking about Cnidaria in class than the virtually neglected ctenophores, they’re over far too quickly as well. For a bit more on a Hydrozoan order that is unusual in entirely lacking a polyp stage, check out this videoabout Narcomedusae by our very own Riley Thompson.
Tuesday, September 18, 2012
Our field trip yesterday to Otter Cliffs, my favorite intertidal site to explore on MDI, was blessed with gorgeous weather and a good low tide (-1.1 feet). The goal was to see high diversity of higher taxa, and we focused our attention on phyla and classes, generating a fairly respectable list.
Phylum Porifera, Class Demospongiae
Phylum Cnidaria, Classes Hydrozoa and Anthozoa
Phylum Mollusca, Classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia
Phylum Annelida, Class Polychaeta
Phylum Arthropoda, Classes Insecta and Crustacea
Phylum Bryozoa, Classes Cheilostomata, Ctenostomata
Phylum Echinodermata, Classes Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, and Echinoidea
|Photo of springtails by Adam M|
We could have expanded this list by aggressively tracking down flatworms (Platyhelminthes) and ribbonworms (Nemertea), both of which I've seen at Otter Cliffs in the past. As it was, we still had plenty to look at to provide tangible examples of those many branches of the phylogenetic trees that form the underlying conceptual structure for this course.
The sponge was surprisingly hard to track down! Virtually everywhere I expected to see it, in tidepools alongside coralline red algae, I found only bare rock. I don't know what's happened to all the Halichondria that used to be so common there.
My students who are also taking entomology this term were thrilled to find springtails in the upper tidepools.
Saturday, September 8, 2012
Cone snails are united in a single genus, Conus, because they share a number of derived features, most notably, a feeding structure modified as a harpoon, which the largest species can use to kill fish.
Most snails feed using a radula, which they use for scraping prey off the substrate. To tell which type of structure is ancestral (exhibited by the common ancestor of all snails), and which type is derived (an evolutionary innovation within snails), compare the feeding structure seen in chitons, which is not a snail, but another class of mollusks. They have a scraping radula, which suggests that this is the ancestral feeding structure in snails as well.
To construct phylogenetic trees, many characters, including morphological, developmental, and molecular, especially DNA sequence data, are examined.